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 Post subject: Pt I - UNARMED COMBAT- Army Training Memorandum (AU)
PostPosted: 28 Mar 2016 13:22 
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PART I
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Unarmed Combat
The Army Training Memorandum (WAR) (Australia) that made up this course.
The first No. 27, was dated 22nd November 1943.

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13. UNARMED COMBAT
    Below are set out the general principles and description of Unarmed Combat. Appendix "D" contains a list of holds and counters, also photographs demonstrating the first six of the series. Further photographs demonstrating the remainder of the holds and counters set out in the list will be published in successive A.T.M.'s. Owing to the number of photographs involved it is not possible to publish all in one number.
  1. The term "Unarmed Combat" is usually applied to the tactics adopted by an unarmed man against an opponent who is armed. Unarmed combat means complete ruthlessness when used against the enemy. "All-in" wrestling, in spite of its name, does not mean quite the same thing, as it. is a test of skill and strength between two unarmed opponents, and intentional killing or maiming is not allowed. "All-in" wrestling forms a part of Unarmed Combat training, because it has been proved beyond doubt that a course of tuition in "All-in" wrestling makes men more receptive of the Unarmed Combat holds and counters. In the list, holds that may be used in wrestling are marked with an asterisk. Many of them are preliminaries to the application of ruthless tactics.
  2. Use of Defence and Offence — Unarmed Combat has hitherto been considered as a means of defence at close quarters when no weapons are at hand. Its use as a means of attack, however, cannot be overlooked, particularly on such occasions as those when weapons cannot be conveniently used, e.g., the stalking of a sentry, when no noise must be made. Moreover, it should be noted that every defensive movement is invariably followed, if successful, by an offensive movement, whereby absolute mastery of an opponent should be obtained.
  3. Ruthlessness — War is a matter of life and death, even where unarmed combat is concerned; hence there must be no scruple or compunction over the methods employed. Complete ruthlessness is necessary in order to gain the mastery over one's opponent. Such brutal methods of attack as kicking, gouging the eyes, etc., though foreign and detestable to the Britisher, must be used without hesitation against a desperate enemy. At the same time, one must not underestimate the value of a good solid punch should the opportunity for its use occur.
  4. Essentials of Success — Surprise, speed and smoothness of execution, and, possibly most important of all, the gaining and retention of the initiative, are all essential if success is to be achieved. These cannot be achieved without a thorough knowledge of the art, allied to constant practice with a variety of partners and under different conditions; e.g., in the matter of dress, or when one is tired, or when it is dark. No two opponents will attack in precisely the same way, but the skilled exponent of unarmed combat will, by virtue of his continual practice under all conditions, have a variety of moves at his command. Although the initiative of an attack may appear to be with the combatant who is armed, the unarmed man can, and should, by skillfully-timed offensive action, seize the initiative, disarm his opponent, and thus secure the upper hand.
  5. Avoidance of Injuries — Great care must be taken during practice to avoid injuries; hence speed of movement may have to be partially sacrificed. Nevertheless, all movements should be made as realistic as possible. In actual combat, do not be misled by the false cries of an artful opponent into relaxing a lock or a hold before control has been obtained.
  6. Use of the Steel Helmet — The steel helmet can be used with great effect as a weapon of offence, as well as serving its usual role as a means of protection. Even when kept on the head it can still be used to deal a vicious blow. Similarly it can be used in the hand to deliver blows, full use being made of its sharp cutting edge. Finally it can be used as a shield, particularly against bayonet or dagger thrusts, or even against a thrown knife. The rubber lining of the steel helmet is intended as a shock absorber, which makes it all the more suitable for use as a shield. Whenever it is used in the hand, the chin strap should be wound around the wrist, to avoid dropping and possibly losing the helmet. For this reason the steel helmet should never be thrown.
  7. Dress — In the early stages, unarmed combat may be practised in P.T. kit. Later, however, it may be performed in any type of dress; gradually working up to battle dress and equipment.
  8. Instruction.
      (a) To obtain best results the squad should not consist of more than 14 men, and must be under supervision of a qualified Instructor.
      (b) Under no circumstances should .men be put through Unarmed Combat training without first being well warmed up with loosening and quickening exercises for a period of not less than five minutes.
      (c) The Instructor will demonstrate each movement to the squad at high speed to show its effectiveness, then execute slowly, explaining every detail.
      (d) To practice movements, the squad will be paired off with ample space between pairs to prevent one pair fouling another.
      (e) The Instructor will put the squad through the movements very slowly until they have been thoroughly mastered, gradually working up to maximum speed. Great care must be taken that correct technique is maintained throughout.
      (f) As men gain confidence and reach a higher state of efficiency, battle tests in Unarmed Combat can be introduced for periods of 10 to 12 minutes' duration, changing partners every 2 minutes.
      This exercise takes the form of hand-to-hand combat, with men putting into effect grips and counters, already learnt, and assures that each man works with various partners and gains the experience of different weight, style, etc., thus developing toughness, initiative, and the ability to make split second decisions as opportunities present themselves.
      (g) Quick-decision exercises should be practiced in the form of ambushes, surprise attacks, etc., e.g., the noiseless capture of the last man of a patrol moving along jungle trails. This will foster a sense of alertness, and develops in men the ability to react instinctively.
      (h) In this war of movement and infiltration no unit is immune from surprise attack. Men with a knowledge of Unarmed Combat are not helpless even if caught unarmed.
      (i) It is only by constant practice in actual hand-to-hand combat that men can be brought to that state of toughness and efficiency required of a capable Unarmed Combat man.
  9. Initial Lesson — How to fall and tumble; balance and leverage. Explain wristlocks, arm bars, face bars, arm rolls, headlocks, crutch holds, body scissors, head scissors, quarter, half and three-quarter nelsons, throat and wrist strangles, toe holds, hammerlock.
  10. Vulnerable Points of Body.
      Front — Head, eyes, temples, base of nose between eyes, under nose, point of chin, and jaw, under lobes of ears, sides of throat, Adam's apple, collarbone, under and above heart, solar plexus, testicles, knee caps, shins and insteps.
      Rear — Head, base of skull, nape of neck, ears, all spinal region, base of spine, kidneys, inside legs above knees, heels.
  11. Ruthless Tactics — Gouging, kicking, kneeing, biting, striking with elbows, wrists and forearms. Use of thumbs and fingers for breaking holds. Striking with heel of palm. Pulling hair. Fingers up nose. Tearing mouth.

APPENDIX "D."
LIST OF HOLDS AND COUNTERS (UNARMED COMBAT).

  1. Quickening exercise.
  2. How to tumble *.
  3. How to fall *.
  4. Balance and leverage *.
  5. Wristlocks, arm bars, etc. *.
  6. Vulnerable points of the body.
  7. Counter grasped round waist from rear, arms free *.
  8. Counter grasped round waist, from behind, arms pinned low *.
  9. Counter grasped from behind, arms pinned high *.
  10. Counter grasped round waist from front, arms pinned low *.
  11. Counter grasped from front, arms pinned high *.
  12. Single arm lock, trip and throw *.
  13. Japanese leg trip *.
  14. Side headlock and hip throw *.
  15. Counter held on ground in side headlock *.
  16. Japanese side headlock and throw *.
  17. Counter to side headlock *.
  18. Counter grasped by the hair *.
  19. Counter full nelson *.
  20. Stomach throw *.
  21. Counter grasped by clothing.
  22. Ruthless tactics.
  23. Throat strangles from behind on ground.
  24. Counter cross arm strangle applied on ground.
  25. Counter cross arm strangle standing.
  26. Counter throat strangle from front, standing.
  27. Counter throat strangle applied on ground.
  28. Counter strangle applied from rear.
  29. Counter strangle applied from rear (alternative).
  30. Stalking man from behind, capturing and strangling.
  31. Pistol disarm from rear.
  32. Pistol disarm from front.
  33. Disarm with rifle and bayonet.
  34. Use of steel helmet for defence.
  35. Use of steel helmet as means of offence.
  36. Counter, knife attack to stomach.
  37. Counter, attack with waddy.
  38. Counter, kick in stomach.
  39. Break grip from wrist.
  40. Come-alongs.
  41. Neck twist; break and throw.
  42. Tying man to tree without cord or rope.
  43. Tree climbing with use of rope (toggle rope).

*May be used in wrestling up to the point when injury might be done.
<Note: Numbers 40-43 were never published>
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1. QUICKENING EXERCISE TO CULTIVATE SPEED AND SMOOTHNESS OF MOVEMENT.

(a) From standing position of attention fall forward bonding the elbows and striking the ground, legs straight.
(b) With quick movements twist completely over to left on to back, legs straight and together, arms extended above head.
(c) With quick co-ordinated movement swing trunk and arms forward, bringing feet under thighs, placing hands, fingers extended, on ground behind buttocks and push up.
(d) With strong quick arm, leg and body action spring to feet on balance. Reveal turning left and right alternately.
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2. HOW TO TUMBLE: RIGHT SHOULDER

(a) Running to make tumble, in co-ordinated movement place right foot firmly on ground, swinging left leg to rear, right arm swung across body, head turned to left.
(b) Tumble forward, landing on flat surface of right shoulder blade.
(c) Somersaulting over.
(d) Finishing up in standing position, on balance.
(e) From erect position, man falls backward breaking fall with outstretched arms, head clear of ground, legs swung upwards.
(f) And over right shoulder (or left), weight of body on right shoulder blade and side of head.
(g) Following through into crouched position on balance.
(h) Pushes up smartly with hands and comes to erect position on balance.
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3. HOW TO FALL FORWARD

As body strikes ground, fingers together and pointing to front, right or left leg draws up under body, knee clear of ground. Weight of body is now distributed over arm and legs.
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4. BALANCE AND LEVERAGE

Man on top of opponent is on perfect balance, lying at right angles across opponent's chest. Has applied wristlock, exerting pressure on opponent's arm by levering upward with own left forearm.
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5. WRISTLOCKS: ARM BARS, ETC.

(a) Double wristlock.
(b) Reverse wristlock.
(c) Hammerlock.
(d) Hammerlock.
(e) Goose neck or wrist strangle.
(f) Toe hold, with leg bar.
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6. VULNERABLE POINTS OF THE BODY

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7a.
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7b.

7a. COUNTER GRASPED AROUND WAIST, FROM REAR; ARMS FREE.

(i) Quickly moves to his right, bends down and grasps opponent's right leg at ankle, and jerks upward.
(ii) Throwing opponent to ground, retaining hold on leg, and sits on opponent's stomach and chest.

7b. COUNTER GRASPED AROUND WAIST, FROM BEHIND; ARMS FREE (ALTERNATIVE).

(i) With co-ordinated movement, side steps to left (or right), raising right arm.
(ii) Chops downwards, and backwards with heel of right palm into opponent's fork, breaking grip.
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8. (a)COUNTER GRASPED AROUND WAIST FROM BEHIND; ARMS PINNED LOW.
    (b) Quickly Pivots on left foot, twisting and thrusting body and right hip outward.
    (c) Grasps opponent's left wrist with his right hand, taking pressure off his own left arm.
    (d) Frees left arm and applies double wristlock.
    (e) Sits down backwards, throwing opponent to ground.
    (f) Retains grip and applies head scissors.
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9. (a) COUNTER GRASPED FROM BEHIND; ARMS PINNED HIGH.
    (b) With co-ordinated movement takes step forward with right foot swinging, right shoulder up, and left shoulder down, throwing off pressure of opponent's arms.
    (c) Drives down with right and left elbows alternatively into opponent's ribs. Follow up with ruthless tactics.
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10. (a) COUNTER GRASPED AROUND WAIST FROM FRONT; ARMS PINNED LOW.
    (b) With quick movement drives thumbs into opponent's groin or fork, forcing his body back, giving freedom of movement.
    (c) Pivots on left foot, grasping opponent around upper part of body.
    (d) Throws opponent with hip throw and follows up with ruthless tactics.
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11. (a) COUNTER ARMS PINNED HIGH.
    (b) With co-ordinated movement he swings right arm and shoulder up, left shoulder down.
    (c) Swings his right arm over opponent's upper left arm, and grasping own right hand, bears down sharply with whole weight of upper body on opponent's arm. Adopt ruthless tactics.
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12. SINGLE ARM LOCK TRIP AND THROW.

(a) Man at right grasps opponent's right wrist with both hands.
(b) Pulls opponent forward, bringing opponent's right leg forward.
(c) In Co-ordinated movement, grasps opponent's right upper arm with right hand, and places right foot behind opponent's heel, pulling and tripping.
(d) Brings opponent to the ground retaining grip of arm. Follows up with ruthless tactics.
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13. JAPANESE LEG TRIP.

(a) Man at left grasps opponent's left wrist with both hands, pulling opponent forward so that his left leg is foremost.
(b) In co-ordinated movement, twists quickly to the right, dropping on right knee, right foot to the rear, left leg extended outside opponent's left leg.
(c) With quick, strong pulling action trips opponent across leg and throws him to the ground.
(d) Applies strangle or adopts ruthless tactics.
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14. SIDE HEADLOCK AND HIP THROW.

(a) Man at right has taken opponent in side headlock, feet well apart, knees slightly bent, opponent draped over right hip.
(b) In co-ordinated movement he then pulls down on headlock, straightens knees and pushes buttocks back into opponent, throwing him off guard.
(c) Throws him to the ground, retaining headlock, with weight on opponent's chest.
(d) Traps opponent's right arm with legs, and applies ruthless tactics with thumb under nose.
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15. COUNTER HELD ON GROUND IN A SIDE HEADLOCK.

(a) Man underneath is held in a side headlock.
(b) As a counter he places his right hand under opponent's nose and forces opponent's head back.
(c) ALTERNATIVE METHOD - Man held in side headlock reaches right arm across opponent's throat, grasping opponent's clothing on right shoulder. Applies strangling pressure, forcing opponent's head backward, breaking the headlock and applying a head scissors.
(d) He then raises his legs and applies a head scissors on opponent. Then adopts ruthless tactics.
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16. JAPANESE SIDE HEADLOCK AND THROW.

(a) Man at right has applied a headlock, grasping his own wrist, and applying pressure, with forearm across cheek of opponent's face. Feet and buttocks well away from opponent.
(b) Retaining the grip, he jumps forward, dragging opponent with him.
(c) Reclines, holding opponent face downwards to the ground, whilst applying pressure by squeezing and forcing his head back.
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17. COUNTER TO SIDE HEADLOCK.

(a) Man at left is held in a side headlock.
(b) In co-ordinated movement he drops on his right knee, places right forearm behind opponent's right knee, and grasps opponent's clothing at left shoulder with left hand.
(c) With a lifting and pulling action, he then throws opponent over his left knee and thigh.
(d) On to the top of his head or back of his neck.
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18. COUNTER GRASPED BY HAIR.

(a) Man at left has been grasped by hair.
(b) Quickly interlocks fingers and hands, clamps down on opponent's hand and applies pressure on wrist joint, bearing in and down.
(c) Forces opponent to knees.
(d) Follows up with ruthless tactics.

_________________
Take Care and Stay Safe,
Ken aka kilogulf59


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